|11th century (1000's A.D.) through 17th century (1600's) A.D.
MIDDLE AGES11th-14th centuries A.D. [1000 A.D. - 1300 A.D.] The maritime republics/merchant states (Amalfi, Pisa, Genoa and Venice) and the city states (Florence, Milan, Ferrara and Siena) arose. They emerged as centers of commerce and of the arts and sciences. The city states resisted efforts of noblemen and emperors to control them. Guelph and Ghilbelline factions emerged, they supported either popes or emperors.
1000 A.D. (est.) Italian emerged (from the vernacular Latin) as a separate language, consisted of several local dialects.
1000's Italian monk, Guido d'Arezzo developed revolutionary systems of notation and sight-singing in the art of music.
1016-1091 century A.D. Normans invaded and ousted Moslems from the south. Normans settle in Sicily and southern "Italy".
1033?-1109 St. Anselm, Italian philosopher-theologian. Susceeded as Archbishop of Canterbury, Doctor of the Church, founder of Scholasticism.
1000's (mid) Bascilica of St. Mark begun in Venice. Byzantine structure.
1100 (circa) University of Bologna (one of the world's oldest universities).
1182?-1226 St. Francis of Assisi, Italian, founder of the Franciscans.
1100 - 1200's Italians joined armies of Christian Crusaders from Europe to the Holy Land.
late 12th century Waldenses; Protestant religious sect. Originated as the Poor Men of Lyons, a group organized by Peter Waldo. Declared heretics in 1184 and 1215. Persecuted until the 18th cent. They later adapted to the Reformed Church.
1200's (early) The Sicilian dialect of the south became the chief literary language.
1266-1337 Giotto di Bondone, artist, painted in new realistic style. His work; at Padua, Assisi and Florence. His work influenced the work of Renaissance masters.
1200's Venetian island of Murano manufactures glassware.
1220-1250 Court of the Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II (1194-1250) Swabian monarch. Also known as a soldier, scientist and poet. [He ruled the south at Palermo, Sicily in the first half of the 1200's. Sicily became a great center of European cultural life - known as the Sicilian School - the authors wrote in the Sicilian dialect. Frederick II established major universities at Salerno and Naples.]
1225 Saint Francis of Assisi wrote "Canticle of the Sun". Considered the first literary work written in Italian, instead of in Latin.
1223 Inquisition tribunal of the Roman Catholic Church begun to fight heresy. Heretics were mostly imprisoned, not and usually burned at the stake. NOT the same as the Spanish inquisition.
1225-74 St. Thomas Aquinas, Italian philosopher-theologian.
1250 (est.) Tuscany became the center of "Italian" cultural life. Tuscan dialect became the language of literature and culture.
1266 Frederick II's son Manfred died. Sicilian power declined.
1200's- early 1300's Florentine poet: Guido Cavalcanti
1300's-1400's The city-states acted as a channel for goods and learning from the Byzantine and Islamic empires. This helped the developing Renaissance. Some of the Italian city-states became a very powerful influence in Europe but were divided and weakened by disputes from within and were captured by foreign invaders. Example: division between the citizens called the Guelphs and Ghibellines. Guelphs supported supreme rule by the pope. Ghibellines supported the emperor.
1300's - 1500's Italian widely used as language of commerce in the eastern Mediterranean area.
1309-77 A.D. The Papacy moved to Avignon during "Babylonian captivity".
1321 Dante Alighieri's (1265-1321) "The Divine Comedy", poetry Florentine.
1300's (mid) Petrarch helped to found the Humanism movement (to revive classical cultures and emphasized the importance of the individual). "Canzoniere"(Book of Songs) by Petrarch, in Italian. Usually wrote in Latin.
1348 The Black Death (bubonic plague). Brought to the port of Genoa Italy by a Russia ship and transmitted by the fleas of ships rats. An epidemic began in Genoa which spread throughout northern Italy continued through all of Europe.
1349-1353 "Decameron" by Giovanni Boccaccio (1313-1375), in Italian.
1378-1417 Great Schism
1400's-1500's Renaissance sculture developed.
1452-1519 Leonardo da Vinci; artist, architect, poet, musician, sculptor, physicist, engineer and inventor.
1475-1564 Michelangelo Buanarroti; artist, poet. His works: Medici Tombs, florence; Sistine Chapel frescoes; created designs for the largest dome in the world - St. Peter's Church in Venice.
1436 Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446) Architect, completed the dome of Sta. Maria dell Fiore in Florence. The cloisters of Santa Croce (Florence) are Brunelleschi's work, too.
1453 Fall of Constantinople to Islam, marked the end of the Eastern (Roman) Empire.
1469-94 A.D. Peak of Renaissance in Florence (city-state) under Lorenzo de Medici a powerful prince, statesman and poet. Florence was ruled after de Medici's death by Savanarola until 1498 when he was burned at the stake.
1450?-1515 Venetian printer Aldus Manutius first used italic type. He based it on a handwriting of his time.
1478 "Stanzas for the Joust" by Angelo Poliziano, Florence.
1478 The Spanish Inquisition, independent of the papal Inquisition-instituted by the Spanish monarchs. The death penalty was used very freely.
1483 "IL Morgante Maggiore" by humorist Luigi Pulci, Florence.
1487 "Orlando innamorato" by Matteo Maria Boiardo, northern court of Ferrara.
1490's Some city-states requested foreign help to settle disputes.
1494 King Charles VII of France used the request for help as a reason to enter Italy with a French army. France and the Holy Roman Empire fought for control of Italy for many years.
Late 1400's Portugal and Spain emerged as great seagoing nations. They undercut Italian prosperity.
1494-1559 A.D. The Italian Wars. Age of invasions as Spain and France struggled to control Italy. France unsuccessful. Spain became the dominant force in the region.
1500's Italian drama developed.
1500's (early) Donato Bramante (1444-1514) architect, designed original plans for St. Peter's Church of Rome.
1501-1504 "Arcadia" by Jacopo Sannazaro, Naples.
1513 "The Prince" by Niccolo Machiavelli (1469-1527), published in 1532. Machiavelli -first modern historian.
1516 "Orlando furioso" by Ludovico Ariosto (1474-1533) chivalrous poem, revised in 1521 and 1532.
1518 "The Book of the Courtier" by Baldassare Castiglione, published in 1528.
1519 King Charles I of Spain (Habsburg family) beccame Charles V emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
1521 Began the series of territorial wars between Charles V (King of Spain/Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire) and Francis I of France.
1527 Charles V's troops (Spanish) looted Rome. Later took Milan and Sicily from France.
1500's (mid) Italian almost completely replaced Latin as a written and spoken language. Many dialects were still spoken on the comunity level.
1542 the Inquisition to the Holy Office, dealt with Protestantism (Pope PAUL III).
1500's (mid) Counter Reformation in the Roman Catholic Church. A religious revolution (mostly in response to the Protestant Reformation) which eventually led to freedom of dissent. Council of TRENT (1545-47)(1551-1552)(1562-1563) convoked by Paul III was the central feature of the Catholic Reformation.
1543 PAUL III became pope; St. IGNATIUS OF LOYOLA founded the Jesuits, major reform began.
1559 France defeated. Most of Italy under control of Spain and the Holy Roman Empire.
1559 A.D. At the treaty of Cateau-Cambreses Spain gained control of Italy.
1575 "Jerusalem Delivered" by Torquato Tasso (1544-1595) poem, published in 1581.
1590's Opera began in Florence.
1600's As France and Spain sought control of Italy. Italy lost it's cultural leadership of Europe.
1600's Galileo Galilei (1564-1642) scientific prose, physics and astronomy.
1623 "Adonis" by Giambattista Marino.
1623 "The City in the Sun" by Tommaso Campanella.